Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa in the African Great Lakes region. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south.

The country’s eastern border is formed by the Indian Ocean. Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.
Tanganyika became a Sovereign State on 9th December 1961 and a Republic in 1962.

Zanzibar became independent on 19th December 1963 as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar was established after the Revolution of 12th January 1964. The two Sovereign States formed the United Republic of Tanzania on 26th April 1964.

The United Republic of Tanzania is a nation in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The country’s eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.

The United Republic of Tanzania is a unitary republic composed of 30  regions. The Capital City is Dodoma and the major commercial city is Dar es Salaam. Official currency is Tanzanian Shilling and the National language is Kiswahili whilst English is widely used in official communication.

The name Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The two states united in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.

Moreover, Tanzania is one of the least developed countries which has great potential and prospects for attaining higher growth and development levels. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, pursues sound economic policies and has attractive investment policies.

Tanzania is a vibrant democracy and the government is seriously committed to good governance, rule of law and respect for human rights.

History
The History of Tanzania started with the European Colonialists.  The 8th century saw the growth of city states along the coast after settlement by Arabs as a nation from Oman. It was seven centuries later in 1499 that the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama visited the island of Zanzibar.

Another 100 years later in the 16th century, the Portuguese occupied Zanzibar. Their occupation did not last for long as in 1699 the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar by Arabs of Oman who had returned to make it their own.

So in the 18th century the Sultan of Oman reasserted Arab overlord ship of the East African coast, which became subordinate to Zanzibar.

By 1840 when Sultan Seyyid bin Sultan moved his capital from Oman to Zanzibar, trade in slaves and ivory flourished.  In 1861, the Sultanates of Zanzibar and Oman separated on the death of Seyyid. During the 19th century, Europeans started to explore inland, closely followed by Christian missionaries.

In 1884 the German Colonization Society began to acquire territory on the mainland in defiance of Zanzibar and 1890 Britain obtained protectorate status over Zanzibar, abolished the slave trade, and recognised German claims to the Mainland. German East Africa was formally established as a colony in 1897.

The 1905-07 Majimaji revolt was brutally suppressed by German troops. World events then took over with the outbreak of the First World War, and far as it was from Europe, German East Africa was not immune from the fighting, though effective fighting was short lived due to the successful 1916 Conquest of German East Africa by the British.

In 1919, the League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to administer part of German East Africa, known as Tanganyika. In 1946 Tanganyika became a UN trust territory.

A Legislative Council was set up in 1926; it was enlarged in 1945 and restructured in 1955 to give equal representation to Africans, Asians and Europeans, sitting as 30 “‘un-officials” with the 31 “officials”.

In 1954, a schoolteacher, Julius Nyerere, founded the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), which promoted African nationalism and won a large public following campaigning for independence.

The colonial authorities responded with constitutional changes increasing the voice of the African population while reserving seats for minority communities.

Elections were held in 1958 and again in 1960. The result was an overwhelming victory for TANU, which was by this time campaigning for independence as well as majority rule. The new government and British Government agreed at a constitutional conference in London to full independence for Tanganyika in December 1961.

Zanzibar achieved independence in 1963 as a separate and sovereign country, under the al-Busaidy Sultan.

Tanganyika became a republic in December 1962, one year after achieving independence, and the direct presidential election brought TANU’s leader, Julius Nyerere, to the presidency.

In 1965 the Constitution was changed to establish a one-party system. Meanwhile, in Zanzibar, a revolution had overthrown the Arab Sultan on 12th January 1964. One month after independence the Constitution was abrogated; Abedi Amani Karume was declared the first African President of Peoples’ Republic of Zanzibar and the country became a one-party state under the Afro-Shirazi Party.

On 26th April 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united as the United Republic of Tanzania, with Julius Nyerere as President and the head of state, while Karume as his Vice President, retained at the same time the Presidency of Zanzibar.

In 1971 Karume was assassinated in Zanzibar and Aboud Jumbe succeeded him as President of Zanzibar and Vice President of Tanzania. The political union between Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania has weathered more than four decades of change. Zanzibar has its own parliament and president.

In an effort to create socially equitable and rapid development, it became in early proponent of African socialism, Ujamaa (roughly meaning Togetherness), launched in 1967 under the banner of Arusha Declaration, with nationalisation of banking, finance, industry and large-scale trade, marketing through boards, and the resettlement of peasants in communal villages, Vijiji vya Ujamaa , created out of large estates

In 1977, the two ruling parties: TANU and Afro Shirazi Party, merged to form the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) which continues to rule the country after consecutive successful elections.

Culture
Tanzania has been described as one of the most diverse countries in Africa and this is reflected in the fact that there are more than 158 local languages spoken in the country. Swahili is the national language that is widely spoken while English is the official language of education; administration and business.

Local people are native African 99 percent of which 95 percent are Bantu consisting of more than 120 tribes and the remaining 1 percent consisting of Asians, Europeans, and Arabs.

Most of the population belongs to Christianity Muslim religions and indigenous religions though there is a small number of Hindus and atheists. Generally, Tanzania culture is a product of African, Arab, European and Indian influences.

Traditional African values are being consciously adapted to modern life, although at a much slower pace among the Maasai. This section highlights aspects of culture including People and life style, Organisations involved in Cultural Activities ,Ethnic Groups, Performing Arts, Visual Arts and Literature.

Heritage
Besides the richness it has of natural resources like  wildlife, water bodies like the ocean, lakes & rivers and minerals, Tanzania is well endowed with abundant significant cultural and natural heritages  which include  archaeological, palaeontogical and historical resources ranging from the Pliocene period about four million years ago to the present time.

National Celebrations
Tanzania national celebrations are generally established by Tanzanian law makers and are normally non-working days. The national cerebrations are occasions, like the anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution Day (12 January); Union Day (26 April); International Workers’ Day (1 May); Saba Saba (7 July, formerly commemorating the establishment of TANU, recently International Trade Fair Exhibitions); Peasants’ Day (8 August); Independence Day (9 December) and Uhuru Torch Race which ends up on 14 October every year to commemorate the death of Mw. Julius Kambarage Nyerere.This section covers national and international festivals celebrated at national level.

Agriculture
In Tanzania the Agricultural Sector is the foundation of the Tanzanian economy. It accounts for about half of the national income, three quarters of merchandise exports and is source of food in addition to provision of employment opportunities to about 75% of Tanzanians.

Agriculture has linkages with the non-farm sector through forward linkages to agro processing, consumption and export; provides raw materials to industries and a market for manufactured goods.

Tanzania produces approximately 97% of its food requirement. Production of food crops varies from year to year depending on the amount of rainfall received.
Agricultural development has been in the domain of government/public funding for a long period of time.

However macro-economic reforms have and continue to have had significant impact on the agriculture sector. The economic reforms have led to the opening up of the sector to private investment in production and processing, input importation and distribution and agricultural marketing.

Most production, processing and marketing functions have been assigned to the private sector. The Government has retained regulatory and public support functions or facilitation role.

Education
The Government of Tanzania has initiated several policy and structural reforms to improve the quality of education and ensure universal primary education for all in order to strengthen the link between education provided at all levels and the socio-economic development of Tanzania.

Education has a significant impact on social and human development, particularly on literacy, poverty, fertility, and maternal and child health. Primary education is the level that has the greatest impact on social outcomes: it contributes to almost 60 percent of the total impact, which further reinforces the justification for sustained efforts to ensure that all Tanzanian children complete at least the primary cycle; and Education responds to labor market needs.

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